Refers to what people do:
Purposes:Every human activity has an objective goal.
Objectives can be:
– Production of goods. E.g. Farming.
– Facilitate movement. E.g. Constructions of roads, railways etc.
– Keeping the environment safe.
– Enjoyment – playing, dancing
– Give services to people – hospital – nurse, doctor
Classification of human activities.
– Extraction of raw materials directly from earth.
i) Farming Food Food crops.
ii) Fishing Food from water bodies.
iii) Mining -Valuable minerals from soil.
– Processing of raw materials to new products.
– Manufacturing of new products from raw materials.
E.g.Crude oil Petroleum Products – Petrol
– Industry which provides services to people e.g. teacher, hospital, schools.
Intellectuals, Administrators at high levels.
Importance of Human Activities
Problems of Human Activities
Note: Human activities can be put into social or economic activities
Farming of Crops -Economic activity which involves raising crops and keeping animals.
Livestock – Cows, goats, chicken, rabbits etc.
Agriculture is the back bone of many developing countries like Tanzania, where about 80% of the people depend on agriculture.
Importance of agriculture to a country like Tanzania.
Root crops – Onion, potato.
Animal products – Meat, milk, beef.
Terminologies associated with agriculture
Advantages of shifting cultivation
Disadvantages of shifting cultivation
A farming method where a peasant has a small piece of land where he/she works with his/her family to produce enough food for the family. Here there is permanent settlement. To continue to get good harvest, there is a need to use modern methods of agriculture to raise production. In this method the use of fertilizers and better seeds is necessary.
Is the production of food and non-food crops for SALE. Commercial agriculture can be intensive or extensive.
a) Intensive agriculture
A method where a small piece of land is used to raise production by employing modern methods of farming. E.g. fertilizers/irrigation, better seeds, pesticides etc.
b) Extensive agriculture
An agricultural system which takes place on large areas i.e. plantations or estates. Most crops grown are for SALE or cash crops like coffee, cotton, sisal, rubber, cocoa etc. Some food crops like wheat, maize can also be grown on plantations. Because of large size of the farms, mechanization is required. Also the use of heavy labour force is also needed.
Livestock keeping where a farmer keeps on moving from one place to another in search for pasture. He does not have a permanent settlement e.g. masai.
A farming system where the farmer does not move or has permanent settlement and may practice mixed farming.
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT AGRICULTURE
There are several factors which influence agricultural activities. These factors are:
The most important factor, rainfall and distribution determine what type of crops to grow, which require high amount and which require less amount of rainfall.
Temperature – Some crops need low temperature others need high temperature.
– Less fertile soil
– Acidic soil for certain crops
– Alkaline soil
Soil profile – Deep soils – crops with tape roots.
– Shallow soils – shallow rooting crops.
– Lowland crops e.g. rice, sugarcane – plains are good for livestock keeping and large scale agriculture.
It will affect agriculture. E.g. trucks are made with the use of science and technology, so if there is no science, there are no trucks and so low production.
Pests – Locusts, weevils
Diseases – Coffee Berry Diseases (CBD), rust
– Skilled and unskilled.
Government must have policy over agriculture. There is no input on agriculture.
Where to sell the crops. A ready market should be there to motivate farmers to produce more and give good prices for goods.
Throughout the world agriculture is carried out in 2 ways:
A type of agriculture where the farmer owns a small piece of land, where he grows food crops and keeps a few animals to satisfy the family needs. Farms are less than 5 hectares.
Advantages of Small Scale Agriculture
Disadvantages of Small Scale Agriculture
– Small size farms.
– Unscientific methods of farming.
– Poor tool quality.
Problems of Small Scale Agriculture
a) Poor marketing facilities.
– No markets
– Poor infrastructure.
b) Lack of government support
– Soft loans to support production.
– Look for better markets.
c) Fluctuation of prices of agricultural products. Fall of agricultural products in world markets.
d) Poverty – No surplus, no investment
e) Traditional beliefs – Superstitions
f) Lack of education – Depends on human labour, need for mechanization.
g) Population pressure – Large number of people on small land.
Solutions to Problems of Small Scale Agriculture
a) Government to look for markets for agricultural products.
b) Government should provide support to the farmers
– Provide soft loans.
– Farming implements.
c) Education – Farmers should be educated with modern methods of agriculture.
d) Improve transport and storage facilities.
e) Provide labour saving machines – tractors, ploughs.
f) Control population growth – Education on family planning.
g) Identification of agriculture.
h) Introduce irrigation.
Gender Role in Small Scale Agriculture (SSA)
What men and women do in SSA.
a) Women role
– They do cultivation
– Do planting
– Do weeding
– Do harvesting
– Transport crops from farms to homes by head
– Scare away birds and animals
– Do all domestic duties.
b) Men role
– Clear the land
– Do minor jobs/guidance
There is gender discrimination, where female do almost all the work and men do very little.
– Women do not own the land.
– Women do not inherit land or property.
– Women are not allowed to give opinion.
– No equal opportunity in education.
– Not accessible to banking facilities.
What should be done to change the discrimination of women in SSA?
Empowerment of women in SSA – The process of giving more power to women.
i) Own land.
ii) Right to own land and property.
iii) Equal opportunity to education.
iv) Women opinion should be considered in decision-making.
v) Women accessible to loans.
vi) Women to have the right to association with other organization.
Why is it important to empower women in SSA?
i) To promote their abilities.
ii) To make them independent.
iii) There should be distribution of work.
iv) To promote freedom and confidence.
Effects of Rapid Population Growth on Small Scale Agriculture
Number of people living in a geographical area.
Population Density = Number of People
Overpopulation – An area is overpopulated when it has too many people in relation to the resources at that level of technology.
Causes of rapid population growth in small scale technology.
– High birth rate: – Lack of education.
– No family planning.
– Prestige/desire to have many children.
– Polygamy – have many wives.
– Early marriages.
– Cultural practices – dowry.
Effects of rapid population growth
a) Poor health.
b) Shortage of land for cultivation and grazing.
c) Shortage of food – starvation/famine/malnutrition.
d) Land degradation – decline in land quality i.e. Infertile because of cultivation, soil erosion.
e) Pollution: Air – Too many people pollute air.
Land – Too many people staying in a small piece of land.
Water – People throw waste in seas.
f) Congestion – If many people in a house sleep in one room, it will get congested.
g) Outbreak of diseases e.g. typhoid, cholera etc.
This is sometimes called plantation on estate farming. It is practiced over a large area or extensive area of over 3000 hectares.
Large Scale Agriculture can be categorized into:-
i) Plantation farming where cash crops are grown. Example, sisal estates in Morogoro and Tanga or sugarcane in Kilombero and Arusha.
ii) Mixed farming – where farmers grow crops and keep livestock as wheat farms in Canada and maize in the USA.
iii) Cooperative or collective farms – Common in China, Kibutz in Israel.
Extensive farming – production is for sale.
Characteristics of Plantation Agriculture.
a) Large land over 3000 hectares.
b) Production is for sale.
c) Mechanization – Use of tractors, harvesters.
d) Is mainly monoculture.
e) Use of modern agricultural methods.
f) Labour availability – skilled or unskilled.
g) Irrigation that does not depend on rainfall only.
h) Efficient transport and communication.
i) Requires ready market.
j) Efficient management.
Requirements for establishment of plantation farming.
Advantages of Large Scale Agriculture
Disadvantages of plantation farming
Possible solutions to the problems
MAIN PLANTATION CROPS
i) Beverages – Coffee, tea, cocoa.
ii) Industrial crops – Sisal, cotton.
iii) Cereal crops – Maize, wheat, rice.
iv) Oil crops – Olives, palm oil.
v) Fruits and vegetables – Banana, apple, orange.
CASE STUDY OF PLANTATION CROPS
It is the most extensive used beverage in the world. There are three types of coffee:-
Note: In many parts of Africa, small farmers grow Coffee.
Coffee is a tropical crop, which requires warm and humid conditions.
Stages in Coffee Growing
– Care – The plants are taken care of by weeding, manuring, prunning done at a regular interval. The first product comes in the 3rd year. You can continue to plant for over 30 years.
– Harvesting – Coffee berries are picked selectively by hand.
– Processing – The picked coffee is taken to pulping machine factory near the farm the same day.
In East Africa large production is from small scale farmers. There are a few plantations in West Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Mbeya.
Market – Major consumers of coffee are USA, China and Japan.
It is another beverage in use all over the world. The origin is China along Yang Tse Kiang valley. From there it is spread to West Europe and then to other parts of the world. Today it is a Universal Drink.
Requirements for Tea Growth
Stages in growing
Major Coffee Producing Regions
Cotton is the leading fibre and oil crop in the world. It has large demand in textile and oil industry.
Being a tropical and sub-tropical crop, it requires the following conditions for proper growth:
Stages In Cotton Growing
Major Cotton Producers In The World
In East Africa, major producing regions are:
What are the problems of cotton growing in Tanzania?
Maize is a cereal crop originated in America as Indian corn. Then corn is grown to make maize. Varieties of maize are there but the common one is Dent, which is even known as soft maize – it has high commercial value in the market. Flint is the type of maize known as hard maize and takes short time to be harvested. Popcorn are hard grains and small in size, sweet taste, good for human consumption. It contains starch and sugar. Flour corn shrinks when ripe and contains soft starch. Others are wax and pod corn which are not use in commercial purpose.
– It grows best in sub-tropical regions 50°N and 40°S.
– Needs atleast 140 days of frost free.
– Moderate summer rains about 890mm and well-watered soil rich in nitrates.
– 18°C to 27°C temperature is good for maize.
– Maturity varies from about 60-300 days.
What is livestock?
These are domesticated animals kept by humans.
Varieties of domesticated animals
Systems Of Livestock Keeping
Pastoralism – Natural pasture – Pastoralists.
Types – Nomadic pastoralism (Nomadism)
Characteristics of Nomadism
Advantages of Nomadic Pastoralism
Disadvantages of Nomadic Pastoralism
Solutions To Problems Posed by Nomadic Pastoralists
Nomads have permanent homes.
Male adults go far away and come back daily. E.g. Masai, Turkana, Ankale.
Sedentary Livestock Keeping – is a type of activity where the cattle or animals don’t move or are kept at one place. Food is brought for the animals.
Reasons Why Nomads and Semi-Nomads Changed To Sedentary
Characteristics of Sedentary Animal Keeping.
Advantages of Sedentary Livestock Keeping
Livestock Ranching – Is where many animals are kept in a large piece of land.
Types of animals kept in ranches:
Main areas for production in the world:
iii) Down in Australia
Areas of Production
U.S.A., Russia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe.
Main Producers – Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, West Europe.
Note: Piggery can take place in almost all types of climate. However, it is restricted in certain regions because of religious reasons.
Characteristics of Ranching
Extensive Livestock Keeping In Tropical Regions
Commercial livestock keeping do take place in tropical regions. E.g. In Tanzania, Kongwa Randi in Dodoma, Kilulo ranch in Iringa and other ranches. It is not as successful as that of temperate regions because of the following reasons:-
Colourless substance found in the atmosphere, on the surface of earth and in the ground. Water can exist in 3 states:- Solid, Liquid and Gas.
Earth is the only planet that has water. More than ¾ of the earth’s surface is covered by water bodies and about ¼ is land.
Distribution of water percentage wise is:
97% – Ocean water
2.15% – Glaciers and Ice blocks e.g. Antarctica
0.61% – Ground water
0.009% – Fresh water
0.008% – Salty lakes
0.005% – Soil moisture
0.001% – Atmospheric water
0.0001% – Rivers
97% – Salty water, which is not good for human consumption.
3% of which 2% is located in ice masses. 1% is fresh water available for human use and other living organisms.
The 1% fresh water available is unevenly distributed over the land. Some continents are more favoured with this resource then others. Even in a country like Tanzania, there are dry regions and wet regions. Fresh water has become a scarce commodity because of population.
What are the sources of water?
Uses of Water
Water conservation is protecting water sources to ensure that the quality and quantity continues to be available for present and future use.
Water can be used for different purposes but water is never exhausted. Fresh water is always available because of hydrological cycle.
We need to conserve it because of:
Methods of Water conservation
What is water supply?
Water supply is the distribution of water to the society for various uses.
Water supply is uneven in Tanzania especially in rural areas. Rural population have to travel long distances to water sources. In urban areas, water supply is inadequate.
What are the effects of shortage of water supply?
How long distance to water sources affect women in Tanzania?
In developing countries like Tanzania, women are responsible for ensuring water availability at home. This culture affects women especially girls in the following ways:-
What should be done to liberate women and girls from such problems:-
It is the addition of toxic substances in water which lowers its quality.
How can water be polluted?
Effects of Water Pollution
How To Prevent Water Pollution
TAP WATER FOR H.E.P.
This is electricity generated from the power of falling water.
Water falls on a turbine, which rotates and drives a generator that gives electricity.
North America is the leading producer of H.E.P. as they produce 1/3 of the total world production. Important dams in North America are:
Europe is the second H.E.P producer – Scandinavian countries and the Alps in Central Europe are the leading.
Asia comes third on the major rivers of China, which are Hwangtto, Yand Tse Kiang and Si Kiang and River Indus in Pakistan.
Australia – Snrvy River where there is a largest river development scheme.
Africa – Has the largest potential of H.E.P. but only 2% has been exploited so far.
Asia has 32% of potential H.E.P. but only 15% is exploited so far.
South America has potentiality of 20% but only 4% has been exploited so far.
Importance Of H.E.P. To Africa/Tanzania
Advantages of H.E.P. over other sources of energy
Problems of H.E.P. in developing countries like Tanzania.
RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
A river is an economic asset of a region. It can be used for various economic activities. Examples of river projects:-
CASE STUDY 1
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
Location: Tennessee is a tributary of Ohio river which is a tributary of Mississippi river. Tennessee river is about 1440 km. The river covers 7 states. The valley covers an area of 64000km2.
Historical background of the project
The region has a high amount of rainfall from 1500 – 2000mm. This region is suitable for agriculture. First farmers from Europe settled in this area and practiced poor agriculture methods. Increase in population led to deforestation and there is poor production. The standard of living declined in 1933. The U.S.A. government initiated the project.
Objectives of the project
– Raise the standard of living of the people.
– To control floods.
– To conserve soil.
The TVA took the following steps:
Note: The TVA project has been so successful that many nations of the world go to learn from the project.
Problems of TVA project
CASE STUDY 2
Indus – Indus River Basin Development Scheme
In the river, there is a region called Punjab. Punjab means the land of 5 rivers, which are Jhelum, Chunub, Ravi, Bias and Sutley. All these are tributaries of Indus river. Punjab became an agricultural region because of:
– Good fertile soil.
– It is large for plantations.
– River Indus has a lot of water.
– To produce more food.
– To get new areas for settlement.
Achievement of the Scheme
Problems of the project
Is the process of turning useless land into a useful one.
Purpose of Land Reclamation
– To get land for industrial or residential purposes.
– To increase are for agriculture.
Main Techniques Used In Land Reclamation.
CASE STUDY 1
Land reclamation in Netherlands.
It is in the North European plain. These countries are also known as BENELUX countries. These are low land countries. Holland has a population of about 17 million people and most of them live on reclaimed land.
There is a saying “God made the world but Dutch made Holland”.
The Zuider Zee Land Reclamation Scheme
The project started in 1927 with the objective of:-
Stages in Zuider Zee Land Reclamation
The land reclaimed from the sea is called POLDER. Zuider Zee project has about 300 polders which is 40% of the reclaimed land in Holland.
Outcome of Zuider Zee Project
Why the Dutch were so successful in the Zuider Zee project.
CASE STUDY 2
Land reclamation of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions
– Regions without enough water are sometimes called Marginal Land. E.g. Tanzania, Sudan, Egypt, Somalia.
– These regions have less than 500mm a year.
Land Reclamation can be done by:-
The Gezira Irrigation Scheme in Sudan
Location: In Sudan between the Blue Nile and White Nile. Gezira means a triangular land between two tributaries of the Nile River. South of Khartoum is where they meet.
Before the project, the area was occupied by semi-nomadism. They kept animals and cultivated drought resistant crops. Property prevailed. The project was proposed in 1904 and implementation started in 1913 by construction of Sennar dam, which was completed in 1925.
Objectives of the project
Process of reclaiming the area.
The main crop is cotton. Others are Sorghum, millet, cassava and groundnuts.
Outcomes of the project
The Gezira scheme is one of the largest successful schemes in Africa.
What is soil erosion?
It is the erosion of soil by agents of soil erosion.
Causes of Soil Erosion
Natural causes – Wind, rain, moving ice.
Human causes – Deforestation – cutting trees which expose soil.
– Shifting cultivation
– Ploughing up and down slope.
– Cultivation on marginal land – semi-arid areas.
Soil Conservation Measures
Exploitation Of Forest Resources
What is a forest ?
It’s an extensive area of land mostly covered by trees of different sizes, species and other forms of undergrowth.
What is a resource?
It is anything useful that can be utilized if necessary. E.g. water minerals, air, forest or land.
Forests on earth vary according to climatic regions.
– 5° – 15° – Tropical overgreen forests
Classification of trees
2 categories – i) Hard wood
Hard Wood from equatorial and tropical regions.
Broad leaves, tall + evergreen throughout the year.
E.g. Mahogany, rosewood, ebony, greenheart.
They are hard and difficult to exploit.
Note: Monsoon is South East Area and Temperate Forest between 30°-50°N+S°, also produce hardwood like.
These are deciduous forests, which have broad leaves but shed leaves during winter.
Obtained from cold regions of America and Europe. These are coniferous forests. Are tall, evergreen and have needle like leaves. Are cone shapes to shed snow during winter.
Importance of forests to a country.
How are forest resources exploited?
There are 2 methods – Controlled harvest
– Uncontrolled harvest
Cut down trees mercilessly, no order and leave the land open to agents of soil erosion.
– Government makes laws and policy on forests.
– Government identifies forest reserves. These reserves are protected by law.
– There is a planned exploitation of forest reserves. The forest managers ensure that resources continue to be available for future uses.
What are the effects of poor forest management:-
– Deforestation, which leads to soil erosion.
– Global warming.
– Extinction of certain species.
– Scarcity of forest resources.
– No habitat for organisms.
– No fuel.
Impact of Rapid Increase Population of Forest Resources
– Greater demand of forest resources, which leads to overexploitation, which leads to exhaustion.
Gender Role in Forests
|1||Collect firewood||Collect firewood|
In traditional African societies women collect firewood.
Effects of collecting firewood to girls/women
How can we solve gender problems?
1. Mining is an economic activity, which involves extracting of minerals from the ground.
According to this definition – Coal, diamond, oil, petroleum are not minerals.
Is any economic valuable substance extracted from the ground.
According to this definition – Coal, diamond, oil and petroleum, gases are minerals.
Classification of Minerals – 4 Classes.
Are crystalline metamorphic rocks e.g. granite, marble, slate. They are used for construction.
Are very useful for various purposes e.g. iron, gold, silver, zinc, bronze – are valuable minerals.
Include salts, sodium chloride are even evaporates.
Occurrence of Minerals
There are 4 modes of occurrence. According to geographical conditions under which they were formed.
Minerals resulting from magma. Magma is infected between rocks and solidifies to make minerals. E.g. copper, tin, silver, zinc.
Occurs in sedentary rocks e.g. coal, potash, gypsum, iron ore, salt etc.
Deposited in mud mixture in river lowland e.g. tin, platinum.
Is breaking down of rocks in to smaller parts – (laterite soil) leaching of iron compound can accumulate in subsoil e.g. iron ore etc.
Methods of mining – 3 methods
Is the cheapest method where minerals are near the surface and obtained by removing the top soil e.g. limestone, potash, gypsum.
Used to obtain minerals deep in the earth. Minerals can even be 1000m underground. A hole has to be deep in earth to reach mineral levels e.g. gold, diamonds, ruby, tanzanite etc.
Done for alluvial deposits. Mud mixed with minerals are mixed with water until dust is washed away leaving heavy particles. E.g. gold, diamond, tin etc.
Distribution Of Minerals In The World
Mineral distribution is uneven. Some countries have a lot of minerals while others don’t.
|Mineral Type||Coal||Iron Ore||Copper||Diamond||Gold|
|South Africa||China||U.S.A||South Africa||Ghana|
Factors which influence mineral exploitation
– Shaft method – Expensive.
Tourism involves the movement of people away from home to other places for studies or pleasure.
Types of Tourism
– Domestic Tourism
Involves travelling to places within a country e.g. DSM to Mikumi.
– International Tourism
Involves travelling to places outside the country.
Reasons of Tourism
Factors which encourage tourism in Tanzania.
Importance of Tourism
Positive Effects of Tourism
Negative Effects of Tourism
Solutions to the problems
Tourism in Tanzania
Tanzania’s tourist industry has a bright future because of:
Tourist attractions in Tanzania (Honeypots)
It refers to the guidance established by an organ in authority like the government with aim of guiding tourist activities.
It is the technology, which denotes ecological aspect combined with tourist activities.
Importance of Eco-Tourism
Industry covers all forms of human activities.
Part of secondary industry, involves changing the material into new product of higher value.
Divisions – Two parts – Light Industry – Produce simple and complex goods.
– Heavy Industry – Machine and other heavy products by other industries.
History of Manufacturing Industry
Industrial revolution – Great Britain 18th, 19th Century
Today major manufacturing sectors are:- Textile, furniture.
Manufacturing Industry is the most important sector in the world.
Factors Affecting Location of Industries
Importance of Manufacturing Industry to a Country
Car Manufacturing in the U.S.A.
General – The U.S.A. is the leading motor car producer in the world. It produces 40% of the total world production. Other big producers are Japan 15%, Germany 12% and France 10%.
Henry Ford built the first car industry in Detroit, North of Lake Erie in U.S.A. Detroit factories spread to other cities in South of the great lakes like Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburg. Then other cities like Los Angeles, California on the Western side of America.
Different factories manufacture different goods. These are brought to the car assembly factory, which has a long belt of over 1 km where the frame passes a workman in line on each side of belt to fix required components. A complete car comes out at the end of the belt. In U.S.A., there is production of a car every minute.
There is a big internal market for the production. Major external markets are Canada, South America and Central America, Asia, Australia and Africa.
Factors Which Favoured Car Production in U.S.A.
Problems Associated With Car Manufacturing In U.S.A.
Solutions To The Problems
Transport and communication is very essential for development in the modern world.
Transport is movement of organisms and goods from one place to another.
Means of transport:- Land, water and air.
Land Transporte.g. Road, railways, human transport, animal, pipelines (oil and water).
Air Transporte.g. Sky, planes, helicopter
Water Transporte.g. Ship and boat, sea, ocean, lake, river.
Importance of Transport
Is the most common means of transport in the world making use of vehicles e.g. bicycles, cars, motorbikes. This means of transport is very well developed in advanced countries but low development in less developed countries.
Advantages Of Road Transport
Communication is transfer and exchange of information between the sender and the receiver.
Means of Communication
Contours and Landforms
Where a contour crosses a river it forms a V-shape which points to a higher land.
Highland projecting into lowland contours making V-shape which points into lowland.
A piece of land projecting into the sea. Contours make a V-shape pointing.
Close contours on the sides and space or the contours on the top to show flat surface.
A passage between hills. A cat is smaller and a saddle is large.
A narrow landform with steep sides. Contours run more or less parallel with closeness on the sides to show steepness.
Vertical – Eastings
Horizontal – Northings
Grid lines are numbered from the origin.
Origin is the point on the South West corner of the map.
Where the 1st easting and northing meet.
Uses of Energy
Types of Energy Resources
Two types – (i) Renewable – If once used, can be replaced.
— (ii) Non- renewable – If once used, cannot be replaced.
The most important fuel in the world.
Major World Producers
U.S.A., China, Russia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Germany.
Importance of Coal
Disadvantages of Coal
It is the leading and greatest resource in demand in the modern industrial world.
Origin: Decayed organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
Major World Producers
U.S.A., Canada, Russia, South Africa, Middle East.
Natural Gas – Mostly associated with petroleum.