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Geography Notes

FORM 2 GEOGRAPHY

1.HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Refers to what people do:

– Function

– Action

– Processes

Purposes:Every human activity has an objective goal.

Objectives can be:

– Production of goods. E.g. Farming.

– Facilitate movement. E.g. Constructions of roads, railways etc.

– Keeping the environment safe.

– Enjoyment – playing, dancing

– Give services to people – hospital – nurse, doctor

Classification of human activities.

  1. Primary Activities (Primary Industries)

– Extraction of raw materials directly from earth.

i) Farming Food   Food crops.

ii) Fishing Food from water bodies.

iii) Mining  -Valuable minerals from soil.

iv) Forestry

 

  1. Secondary Activities (Secondary Industry)

– Processing of raw materials to new products.

– Manufacturing of new products from raw materials.

E.g.Crude oil         Petroleum Products – Petrol

– Diesel

– Kerosene

  1. Tertiary Activities

– Industry which provides services to people e.g. teacher, hospital, schools.

  1. Quaternary Industry

Intellectuals, Administrators at high levels.

 

Importance of Human Activities

  1. Basic needs
  2. Services
  3. Improvement of living standard
  4. Making the world a better place to live.

Problems of Human Activities

  1. Over exploitation of resources – Fishing, Lumbering, Mining.
  2. Soil erosion.
  3. Pollution – Air, Land, Water
  4. Destructive weapons – Wars.

Note: Human activities can be put into social or economic activities

 

 

2.AGRICULTURE

Farming of Crops -Economic activity which involves raising crops and keeping animals.

Animal Keeping

Livestock – Cows, goats, chicken, rabbits etc.

Agriculture is the back bone of many developing countries like Tanzania, where about 80% of the people depend on agriculture.

Importance of agriculture to a country like Tanzania.

  1. Source of food: Cereal crops – Maize, wheat.

Root crops – Onion, potato.

Animal products – Meat, milk, beef.

  1. Source of income: Crops sold to the market bring revenue – Forex and Local money.
  2. Source of raw materials for industries. E.g. gold, iron, diamond.
  3. Provide employment.
  4. Basis for trade.

Terminologies associated with agriculture

  1. Arable farming – Cultivation of crops.
  2. Pastoral farming – Animal keeping on less fertile land.
  3. Mixed farming – Farming of crops and animal keeping on the same land at the same time. Here there is permanent settlement.
  4. Shifting cultivation – Peasants move with their activities from one land to another when it becomes exhausted.

Advantages of shifting cultivation

  1. It is less costly i.e. Does not need sophisticated tools.
  2. Virgin land assures a farmer a fertile land.
  3. Ashes add fertility to the soil.
  4. Controls pests and diseases.

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation

  1. Destruction of environment.
  2. Burning kills living organisms.
  3. No surplus (low production).
  4. Depends totally on rainfall.
  1. Subsistence farming (agriculture)

A farming method where a peasant has a small piece of land where he/she works with his/her family to produce enough food for the family. Here there is permanent settlement. To continue to get good harvest, there is a need to use modern methods of agriculture to raise production. In this method the use of fertilizers and better seeds is necessary.

  1. Commercial farming

Is the production of food and non-food crops for SALE. Commercial agriculture can be intensive or extensive.

a) Intensive agriculture

A method where a small piece of land is used to raise production by employing modern methods of farming. E.g. fertilizers/irrigation, better seeds, pesticides etc.

b) Extensive agriculture

An agricultural system which takes place on large areas i.e. plantations or estates. Most crops grown are for SALE or cash crops like coffee, cotton, sisal, rubber, cocoa etc. Some food crops like wheat, maize can also be grown on plantations. Because of large size of the farms, mechanization is required. Also the use of heavy labour force is also needed.

  1. Nomadic pastoralism

Livestock keeping where a farmer keeps on moving from one place to another in search for pasture. He does not have a permanent settlement e.g. masai.

  1. Sedentary agriculture

A farming system where the farmer does not move or has permanent settlement and may practice mixed farming.

 

FACTORS WHICH AFFECT AGRICULTURE

There are several factors which influence agricultural activities. These factors are:

  1. Climate

The most important factor, rainfall and distribution determine what type of crops to grow, which require high amount and which require less amount of rainfall.

Temperature – Some crops need low temperature others need high temperature.

  1. Soil – Fertile soil

– Less fertile soil

– Acidic soil for certain crops

– Alkaline soil

Soil profile – Deep soils – crops with tape roots.

– Shallow soils – shallow rooting crops.

  1. Attitude – Highland crops i.e. coffee, tea

– Lowland crops e.g. rice, sugarcane – plains are good for livestock keeping and large scale agriculture.

  1. Level of science and technology

It will affect agriculture. E.g. trucks are made with the use of science and technology, so if there is no science, there are no trucks and so low production.

  1. Pests and diseases

Pests – Locusts, weevils

Diseases – Coffee Berry Diseases (CBD), rust

  1. Labour force –Required in large scale agriculture.

–  Skilled and unskilled.

  1. Government policy

Government must have policy over agriculture. There is no input on agriculture.

  1. Market

Where to sell the crops. A ready market should be there to motivate farmers to produce more and give good prices for goods.

 

AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

Throughout the world agriculture is carried out in 2 ways:

  1. Small Scale Agriculture

A type of agriculture where the farmer owns a small piece of land, where he grows food crops and keeps a few animals to satisfy the family needs. Farms are less than 5 hectares.

Characteristics

  1. a) Small land 1 – 5 hectares.
  2. b) Production is for family use – maize, bean, potato.
  3. c) Use of unscientific methods of agriculture.
  4. d) Depend on family labour.
  5. e) Small capital required – simple tools, hoes, panga, sticks, and axes.
  6. f) Beliefs in superstitions dominate.
  7. g) Poor storage facilities.
  8. h) Land fragmentation – dividing of land.

Advantages of Small Scale Agriculture

  1. a) The method provides food for the family.
  2. b) Because of less capital many farmers can afford.
  3. c) Variety of crops can be grown on small pieces of land.
  4. d) Small land required.
  5. e) Majority of rural people are employed.
  6. f) Lead to intensification of agriculture.
  7. g) Is a source of income – sell crops to get money, export for foreign exchange.

Disadvantages of Small Scale Agriculture

  1. a) Low production

– Small size farms.

– Unscientific methods of farming.

– Poor tool quality.

  1. b) Depends totally on rainfall. When rainfall is insufficient, they face famine.
  2. c) Poor storage facilities. Most harvest is destroyed by insects.
  3. d) Little or no surplus.
  4. e) Mechanization is impossible because of small size farms.

Problems of Small Scale Agriculture

a) Poor marketing facilities.

– No markets

– Poor infrastructure.

b) Lack of government support

– Soft loans to support production.

– Look for better markets.

c) Fluctuation of prices of agricultural products. Fall of agricultural products in world markets.

d) Poverty – No surplus, no investment

e) Traditional beliefs – Superstitions

f) Lack of education – Depends on human labour, need for mechanization.

g) Population pressure – Large number of people on small land.

 

Solutions to Problems of Small Scale Agriculture

a) Government to look for markets for agricultural products.

b) Government should provide support to the farmers

– Provide soft loans.

– Farming implements.

–            Experts.

c) Education – Farmers should be educated with modern methods of agriculture.

d) Improve transport and storage facilities.

e) Provide labour saving machines – tractors, ploughs.

f) Control population growth – Education on family planning.

g) Identification of agriculture.

h) Introduce irrigation.

 

Gender Role in Small Scale Agriculture (SSA)

What men and women do in SSA.

a) Women role

– They do cultivation

– Do planting

– Do weeding

– Do harvesting

– Transport crops from farms to homes by head

– Scare away birds and animals

– Do all domestic duties.

 

b) Men role

– Clear the land

– Do minor jobs/guidance

 

There is gender discrimination, where female do almost all the work and men do very little.

– Women do not own the land.

– Women do not inherit land or property.

– Women are not allowed to give opinion.

– No equal opportunity in education.

– Not accessible to banking facilities.

 

What should be done to change the discrimination of women in SSA?

Empowerment of women in SSA – The process of giving more power to women.

How?

i) Own land.

ii) Right to own land and property.

iii) Equal opportunity to education.

iv) Women opinion should be considered in decision-making.

v) Women accessible to loans.

vi) Women to have the right to association with other organization.

 

Why is it important to empower women in SSA?

i) To promote their abilities.

ii) To make them independent.

iii) There should be distribution of work.

iv) To promote freedom and confidence.

 

Effects of Rapid Population Growth on Small Scale Agriculture

  1. a) Population

Number of people living in a geographical area.

Population Density = Number of People

Area

Overpopulation – An area is overpopulated when it has too many people in relation to the resources at that level of technology.

 

Causes of rapid population growth in small scale technology.

– High birth rate: – Lack of education.

– No family planning.

– Prestige/desire to have many children.

– Polygamy – have many wives.

– Early marriages.

– Cultural practices – dowry.

 

Effects of rapid population growth

a) Poor health.

b) Shortage of land for cultivation and grazing.

c) Shortage of food – starvation/famine/malnutrition.

d) Land degradation – decline in land quality i.e. Infertile because of cultivation, soil erosion.

e) Pollution: Air – Too many people pollute air.

Land – Too many people staying in a small piece of land.

Water – People throw waste in seas.

f) Congestion – If many people in a house sleep in one room, it will get congested.

g) Outbreak of diseases e.g. typhoid, cholera etc.

h) Lawlessness/crimes.

i) Unemployment.

 

  1. Large Scale Farming

This is sometimes called plantation on estate farming. It is practiced over a large area or extensive area of over 3000 hectares.

Large Scale Agriculture can be categorized into:-

i) Plantation farming where cash crops are grown. Example, sisal estates in Morogoro and Tanga or sugarcane in Kilombero and Arusha.

ii) Mixed farming – where farmers grow crops and keep livestock as wheat farms in Canada and maize in the USA.

iii) Cooperative or collective farms – Common in China, Kibutz in Israel.

 

Plantation Farming

Extensive farming – production is for sale.

Characteristics of Plantation Agriculture.

a) Large land over 3000 hectares.

b) Production is for sale.

c) Mechanization – Use of tractors, harvesters.

d) Is mainly monoculture.

e) Use of modern agricultural methods.

f) Labour availability – skilled or unskilled.

g) Irrigation that does not depend on rainfall only.

h) Efficient transport and communication.

i) Requires ready market.

j) Efficient management.

 

Requirements for establishment of plantation farming.

  • a) Capital – Acquire land, machines, farm inputs.
  • b) Market – Ready markets for products.
  • c) Employment of labour – Stalled and unstalled.
  • d) Better mechanization – Harvest.
  • e) Modern machines.
  • f) Good seeds.

 

Advantages of Large Scale Agriculture

  • a) High quality products.
  • b) There is mass production.
  • c) There is efficiency.
  • d) There are employment opportunities.
  • e) Basis for industries.
  • f) Simulates other scales of economy.
  • g) Source of income for local people.

 

Disadvantages of plantation farming

  • a) Ownership by foreigners – foreign investors take profits.
  • b) Large capital required. Farmers are poor.
  • c) Climate – drought or bad weather = low production.
  • d) Cannot be done in densely populated areas.
  • e) Low technology.
  • f) Land degradation.
  • g) Leads to desertification.
  • h) Price fluctuation in the world market.
  • i) Land conflicts.

 

Possible solutions to the problems

  • a) Naturalization – Part of plantation under ownership of natives.
  • b) Privatization – The plantation given to private sector.
  • c) Divide the plantation to small farmers.
  • d) Diversification – markets, activities, crops.
  • e) Applications of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides.
  • f) Education – skilled man power.
  • g) Loans – for modern implements.

 

MAIN PLANTATION CROPS

Plant crops:

i) Beverages – Coffee, tea, cocoa.

ii) Industrial crops – Sisal, cotton.

iii) Cereal crops – Maize, wheat, rice.

iv) Oil crops – Olives, palm oil.

v) Fruits and vegetables – Banana, apple, orange.

 

CASE STUDY OF PLANTATION CROPS

COFFEE

It is the most extensive used beverage in the world. There are three types of coffee:-

  1. Arabica – Originated in Ethiopia, spread to Arabia and other parts of the world. It has the finest flavor.
  2. Robusta – Is a hard coffee grown in West Africa, Uganda and Kagera in Tanzania.
  3. Liberica – Is a hardy coffee originated in Liberia. Is a low land crop popular in making instant coffee.

Note: In many parts of Africa, small farmers grow Coffee.

 

MAIN PLANTATION

Coffee is a tropical crop, which requires warm and humid conditions.

  • a) Temperature
  • b) Rainfall
  • c) Soil – Volcanic soil
  • d) Altitude 600m – 2000m above soil level.
  • e) Shade – The crop should be sheltered from strong wind and sun.

 

Stages in Coffee Growing

  1. – Seedlings are raised in seedbed. Transplanting is done after six months when the seedlings are planted in a field at a distance of 3m apart.

– Care – The plants are taken care of by weeding, manuring, prunning done at a regular interval. The first product comes in the 3rd year. You can continue to plant for over 30 years.

– Harvesting – Coffee berries are picked selectively by hand.

– Processing – The picked coffee is taken to pulping machine factory near the farm the same day.

  1. Fermentation for 2 days.
  2. Washing plus drying.
  3. Dry coffee berries are sold to coffee curing – Where the inner husk is removed.
  4. Grading and packing in bags.
  5. Export.
  6. Importing countries roast, grind, pack and sell.

In East Africa large production is from small scale farmers. There are a few plantations in West Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Mbeya.

Market – Major consumers of coffee are USA, China and Japan.

TEA

It is another beverage in use all over the world. The origin is China along Yang Tse Kiang valley. From there it is spread to West Europe and then to other parts of the world. Today it is a Universal Drink.

Requirements for Tea Growth

  1. Temperature – Coal 13° to 25°.
  2. Rainfall – About 1000mm per year – 2000mm.
  3. Slopping land between 1500m-2000m above sea level.
  4. Soils – Well drained and slight acidic.
  5. Labour force – Required throughout the year.
  6. Shade – They do better when they are shaded from strong winds and sun.

Stages in growing

  1. Seedlings are raised in seedbeds and transplanted to a plantation farm at the age of 1 year.
  1. Planting is done in rows at the interval of 1.5m apart.
  1. Care – Weeding, spraying, prunning, manuring is done at regular intervals until the plant is 3 years old. After harvesting, it continues for over 50 years.
  1. Harvesting – Picking tea is done by hand. The two tender leaves are plucked from the stem. This is repeated after every 2 weeks and goes on throughout the year.
  2. Processing – From the farm the tea leaves are taken to the factory the same day. In the factory, the following stages occur:-
  • a) Withering – By hot/cold steam
  • b) Rolling – To destroy the plant cells
  • c) Dry again till they are red/brown
  • d) Fermentation – To remove tannic acid
  • e) Roasting – Till they become black
  • f) Graded + packed
  • g) Sent to market.

Major Coffee Producing Regions

 

COTTON

Cotton is the leading fibre and oil crop in the world. It has large demand in textile and oil industry.

Requirements

Being a tropical and sub-tropical crop, it requires the following conditions for proper growth:

  1. Temperature – Warm temperature between 15°C – 25° with atleast 200 days frost free.
  2. Rainfall – Moderate rainfall to light rainfall i.e. between 500mm – 1000mm annually. Where rainfall is less than 500mm, irrigation is necessary.
  3. Soil – Loam-fertile.
  4. Relief – More or less flat land for every mechanization.
  5. Labour force – especially while harvesting.

Stages In Cotton Growing

  1. Preparation of farms.
  2. Cotton seeds are sown in ridges, several seeds in a hole.
  3. Care – When the seeds grow only one plant is required in each hole, so there is thinning to remove weak plants. Weeding and spraying is done at regular intervals until flowering period after 3 months. After flowering seeds, pods called BOLLS appear. On ripening, the ball breaks open and a white fibre called LINT comes out. This lint is attached to the seeds.
  4. Harvesting – Picking cotton starts in the 5th – 7th month. The work is done mostly by hand.
  5. Processing – From the farm, cotton is sorted and graded, then sold to cooperative union or to the ginneries, the lint is separated from the seeds. The lint is now compressed into BALES, which are sold to the market. The seeds are processed to provide oil, soap, margarine and animal food.

Major Cotton Producers In The World

  Country %
1 U.S.A 24
2 India 15
3 Turkey 4
4 Australia 4
5 Uzbekistan 6
6 Sudan 24


In East Africa, major producing regions are:

  Tanzania Kenya Uganda
1 Iringa Kericho Ruwenzori
2 Mbeya Nyanza District Buganda
3 Mwanza    
4 Mara    

 

What are the problems of cotton growing in Tanzania?

  1. Unreliable rainfall.
  2. Loss due to diseases.
  3. Poor transportation.
  4. Poor storage.

MAIZE

Maize is a cereal crop originated in America as Indian corn. Then corn is grown to make maize. Varieties of maize are there but the common one is Dent, which is even known as soft maize – it has high commercial value in the market. Flint is the type of maize known as hard maize and takes short time to be harvested. Popcorn are hard grains and small in size, sweet taste, good for human consumption. It contains starch and sugar. Flour corn shrinks when ripe and contains soft starch. Others are wax and pod corn which are not use in commercial purpose.

Requirements

– It grows best in sub-tropical regions 50°N and 40°S.

– Needs atleast 140 days of frost free.

– Moderate summer rains about 890mm and well-watered soil rich in nitrates.

– 18°C to 27°C temperature is good for maize.

– Maturity varies from about 60-300 days.

LIVESTOCK KEEPING

What is livestock?

These are domesticated animals kept by humans.

Varieties of domesticated animals

  1. Animals e.g. cattle, goats, cow
  2. Birds e.g. chickens, ducks

Purposes/aims

  1. Food e.g. milk, meat.
  2. Wool from sheep.
  3. Feathers – Fur.
  4. Skin bones for hide/skin industry.
  5. Manure – Cow dung, animal waste.
  6. Pets – Dogs, cats.
  7. Transport e.g. Camels, elephants.
  8. Commercial purposes
  9. Cultural functions – Cows, elephants as dowry/sacrifices.

 

Systems Of Livestock Keeping

Pastoralism – Natural pasture – Pastoralists.

Types – Nomadic pastoralism (Nomadism)

  • Is when pastoralists move from one place to another in search of pasture.
  • No permanent settlement. E.g. Masai, karamajong, hotentots

Characteristics of Nomadism

  • a) No permanent settlement.
  • b) Practiced by wandering groups of people.
  • c) Live in simple rent houses.
  • d) They judge the value of their wealth by the size of the livestock.

 

Advantages of Nomadic Pastoralism

  • a) Not expensive.
  • b) Provide basic requirements.
  • c) Traditional breed is resistant to diseases.
  • d) Traditional breed withstand hardship of long drought and long distance travel for water and pasture.

Disadvantages of Nomadic Pastoralism

  • a) Poor quality.
  • b) No application of modern technology.
  • c) No application in areas with dense population.
  • d) Climate drought.
  • e) Conflicts with farmers.
  • f) Spread of diseases – foot and mouth diseases.
  • g) Land degradation.
  • h) Soil erosion.
  • i) Wastage of time in moving.

 

Solutions To Problems Posed by Nomadic Pastoralists

  • a) Education – Adopt new methods of animal keeping.
  • b) Establish permanent settlement.
  • c) Destocking – Decrease number of livestock.
  • d) Introduce social services – veterinary centre, fresh water.

 

Semi-Nomadism

Nomads have permanent homes.

Male adults go far away and come back daily. E.g. Masai, Turkana, Ankale.

Sedentary Livestock Keeping – is a type of activity where the cattle or animals don’t move or are kept at one place. Food is brought for the animals.

 

Reasons Why Nomads and Semi-Nomads Changed To Sedentary

  • a) High population – shortage of land.
  • b) Need for other economic activities.

 

Characteristics of Sedentary Animal Keeping.

  • a) A few number of animals.
  • b) No movement of animals.
  • c) Practice arable farming.
  • d) Animal waste is used as fertilizers.
  • e) High breed of animals.
  • f) Use of modern technology.

 

Advantages of Sedentary Livestock Keeping

  • a) Control disease spreading.
  • b) Animals of high quality – better products.
  • c) No wastage of time.
  • d) It becomes easy for government to provide social services.

 

Disadvantages

  • a) Expensive – need capital.
  • b) Resistance of pastoralist to change.

 

Livestock Ranching – Is where many animals are kept in a large piece of land.

Types of animals kept in ranches:

  1. Beef cattle ranches – keeping of cattle for meat.

Main areas for production in the world:

  1. i) Steppes in Europe
  2. ii) Pampas in Argentina

iii) Down in Australia

  1. Dairy farming – Raise of cattle for milk and milk products.

Areas of Production

  1. i) Temperate grassland countries.
  2. ii) Tropical grassland.

Main producers:

U.S.A., Russia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe.

 

  1. Sheep Ranching – Ranching sheep for wool and cotton.

Main Producers – Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, West Europe.

 

  1. Piggery – Rearing pigs for pork.

Note: Piggery can take place in almost all types of climate. However, it is restricted in certain regions because of religious reasons.

 

  1. Poultry – Rearing of birds.

Characteristics of Ranching

  • a) Presence of large area 1000 – 3000 hectares.
  • b) Large capital.
  • c) Only one type of cattle is kept.

Advantages

  • a) Improvement of transport and communication.
  • b) Source of revenue.
  • c) Source of income.

Disadvantages

  • a) High cost – poor farmers cannot afford.
  • b) Land degradation.

 

Extensive Livestock Keeping In Tropical Regions

Commercial livestock keeping do take place in tropical regions. E.g. In Tanzania, Kongwa Randi in Dodoma, Kilulo ranch in Iringa and other ranches. It is not as successful as that of temperate regions because of the following reasons:-

  1. Climate – Constant drought, harsh climate i.e. hot leading to poor vegetation.
  2. Poor technology.
  3. Poor breed – Hybrid animals from temperate lands cannot survive.
  4. Tropical diseases – Diseases not found in temperate regions e.g. Nagoya, anthrax, sleeping sickness, food and mouth diseases.
  5. Lack of capital – Poor countries have no capital to improve the sector e.g. Veterinary.
  6. Remoteness – The ranches are far from the market. Animal products are perishable and so fail to reach the market on time.
  7. Poor transport and storage facilities also lack of enough processing plants.

 

 

3.WATER MANAGEMENT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Colourless substance found in the atmosphere, on the surface of earth and in the ground. Water can exist in 3 states:- Solid, Liquid and Gas.

Earth is the only planet that has water. More than ¾ of the earth’s surface is covered by water bodies and about ¼ is land.

Distribution of water percentage wise is:

97%                 –           Ocean water

2.15%                          –           Glaciers and Ice blocks e.g. Antarctica

0.61%                          –           Ground water

0.009%            –           Fresh water

0.008%            –           Salty lakes

0.005%            –           Soil moisture

0.001%            –           Atmospheric water

0.0001%          –           Rivers

 

97% – Salty water, which is not good for human consumption.

3% of which 2% is located in ice masses. 1% is fresh water available for human use and other living organisms.

The 1% fresh water available is unevenly distributed over the land. Some continents are more favoured with this resource then others. Even in a country like Tanzania, there are dry regions and wet regions. Fresh water has become a scarce commodity because of population.

 

Water Management

What are the sources of water?

  1. Atmosphere – All forms of precipitation are from the atmosphere e.g. rain, snow, hail, sleet.
  2. Earth’s Surface – Ocean, river, sea, lakes.
  3. Ground Water – Water below the ground e.g. wells, springs.

Uses of Water

  1. Water for domestic purposes – used at home for bathing, cooking and washing utensils.
  2. Water for industrial purposes.
  3. Water for agricultural purposes – irrigation.
  4. Water for producing H.E.P.
  5. Water for transport – Sea routes, navigable rivers, lakes.
  6. Entertainment/recreating.
  7. Water as habitat for organisms e.g. sharks, fish etc.
  8. Water as source of minerals e.g. salts.
  9. Source of food e.g. fish, prawns.
  10. Source of income.

Water Conservation

Water conservation is protecting water sources to ensure that the quality and quantity continues to be available for present and future use.

Water can be used for different purposes but water is never exhausted. Fresh water is always available because of hydrological cycle.

We need to conserve it because of:

  1. Uneven distribution of rainfall – There are dry and wet seasons and water to be conserved for industrial use.
  2. Increase in demand because of increase in population.
  3. Loss of fresh water because of pollution especially in urban areas.
  4. Expensive –Water bills in urban areas.
  5. Increase in distance from homestead to water sources (rural areas).
  6. Improve health conditions – hygiene purpose, purification, quality and quantity.

Methods of Water conservation

  1. Construction of dams across a river.
  2. Protecting catchment areas.
  3. Afforestation (plant trees) and reforestation (replace cut down trees).
  4. Harvest rain water from house roofs.
  5. Preventing water sources from pollution.

Saving Water

  1. Preventing water pollution because of domestic or industrial waste or carrying agricultural activities on water sources.
  2. Recycling of water – Purify water and reuse.
  3. Prevent leakages.
  4. Effective laws for protecting water sources and preventing water pollution.
  5. Desilting the dams – Remove deposited material in a dam to increase water volume.

WATER SUPPLY

What is water supply?

Water supply is the distribution of water to the society for various uses.

Water supply is uneven in Tanzania especially in rural areas. Rural population have to travel long distances to water sources. In urban areas, water supply is inadequate.

What are the effects of shortage of water supply?

  • Wastage of time – Travelling to water sources.
  • Wastage of energy – Strength.
  • Outbreak of diseases e.g. cholera, diarrhea, typhoid etc.
  • Fall in industrial production.
  • Fall in agricultural production.
  • Death to livestock.
  • No H.E.P.
  • Migration – Drought which results people to move to other places.

How long distance to water sources affect women in Tanzania?

In developing countries like Tanzania, women are responsible for ensuring water availability at home. This culture affects women especially girls in the following ways:-

  • a) Spend much time looking for water instead of studying.
  • b) Travelling to water sources on foot and carry a bucket of water on head is unhealthy.
  • c) Girls are exposed to accidents like snake bites.
  • d) Girls fail to take part in other common activities.
  • e) It is a form of child labour exploitation.

What should be done to liberate women and girls from such problems:-

  • a) Provide water near homestead e.g. through pipes.
  • b) Drill wells – Shallow and Deep.
  • c) Conserve water – Construction of water tanks.
  • d) Harvest rain water – Collect in reservoirs.
  • e) Man and women should cooperate in bringing water.

 

WATER POLLUTION

It is the addition of toxic substances in water which lowers its quality.

How can water be polluted?

  • Disposing domestic wastes in water bodies e.g. Laundry water.
  • Industrial waste e.g. Agricultural activities – chemicals and fertilizers.
  • Fishing by dynamite.
  • Oil spills in water – tank, leakages.

Effects of Water Pollution

  • a) Breakout of diseases.
  • b) Brings death to living organisms e.g. Fish,
  • c) Water shortage
  • d) Shortage of electricity –H.E.P.

 

How To Prevent Water Pollution

  • a) Recycle water.
  • b) Dispose garbage safely.
  • c) To stop dynamite fishing.
  • d) Government to prevent water from being polluted by application of laws.

 

TAP WATER FOR H.E.P.

  1. What is H.E.P.?

This is electricity generated from the power of falling water.

Water falls on a turbine, which rotates and drives a generator that gives electricity.

  1. Condition for harnessing H.E.P.
  • Steep slopes with waterfalls. Therefore mountainous regions like Scandinavian countries i.e. Norway, Sweden and Denmark are ideal for H.E.P.
  • Reliable sources of water – Constant rainfall and rivers which flow throughout the year.
  • Sufficient capital – Initial capital for construction of a power station is very large. Without funds, production of H.E.P. is impossible.
  • Skilled man power to construct and manage the power station.
  • Reliable market – Large population with purchasing power to use the electricity near the power station.
  1. Areas of production in the world.

North America is the leading producer of H.E.P. as they produce 1/3 of the total world production. Important dams in North America are:

  • a) Hoover dam in Colorado River.
  • b) Niagara falls on St. Lawrence sea way.
  • c) Ciunterville dam on the Tennessee River.

Europe is the second H.E.P producer – Scandinavian countries and the Alps in Central Europe are the leading.

Asia comes third on the major rivers of China, which are Hwangtto, Yand Tse Kiang and Si Kiang and River Indus in Pakistan.

Australia – Snrvy River where there is a largest river development scheme.

Africa – Has the largest potential of H.E.P. but only 2% has been exploited so far.

Asia has 32% of potential H.E.P. but only 15% is exploited so far.

South America has potentiality of 20% but only 4% has been exploited so far.

 

Importance Of H.E.P. To Africa/Tanzania

  1. Source of energy for domestic and industrial uses.
  2. Source of income – internal revenue and foreign revenue by exports.
  3. Encourages environmental conservation.
  4. Promotes the living standard of people.
  5. Stimulates other sectors of economy e.g. Industries, social services.
  6. Encourages development of science and technology.

 

Advantages of H.E.P. over other sources of energy

  • a) Less pollutant than other fuels.
  • b) It has relative longer life.
  • c) Maintenance cost after installation is low.
  • d) Requires a few high skilled manpower to maintain it.

 

Problems of H.E.P. in developing countries like Tanzania.

  • a) Excessive evaporation.
  • b) Low capital.
  • c) Less skilled labour.
  • d) Poor market.
  • e) Destruction of power lines.
  • f) Low technology level.

 

RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

A river is an economic asset of a region. It can be used for various economic activities. Examples of river projects:-

  1. The TVA – Tennessee river development scheme in U.S.A.
  2. Amazon basin development in South America.
  3. Indus river basin development project in Pakistan.
  4. Congo river basin development project in D.R.C.
  5. Rufiji river basin development project.

 

CASE STUDY 1

TVA Tennessee Valley Authority

Location: Tennessee is a tributary of Ohio river which is a tributary of Mississippi river. Tennessee river is about 1440 km. The river covers 7 states. The valley covers an area of 64000km2.

Historical background of the project

The region has a high amount of rainfall from 1500 – 2000mm. This region is suitable for agriculture. First farmers from Europe settled in this area and practiced poor agriculture methods. Increase in population led to deforestation and there is poor production. The standard of living declined in 1933. The U.S.A. government initiated the project.

Objectives of the project

  1. Long-term Objectives

– Raise the standard of living of the people.

  1. Short-term Objectives

– To control floods.

– To conserve soil.

The TVA took the following steps:

  • a) Construction of 32 dams.
  • b) Reforestation
  • c) Mass education of proper farming methods.
  • d) Planting grass and cover crops to check soil erosion

 

Outcomes/Results

  • a) Flood control by dams.
  • b) Increase in water supply for various uses.
  • c) Production of H.E.P. uses
  • d) Stimulate growth of industries e.g. Chattanooga – Steel e.t.c.
  • e) Fishing industry.
  • f) Soil conservation was achieved – Soil fertility leading to increased productivity.
  • g) Navigation improved.
  • h) Tourism industry – Many tourists visit the project.
  • i) Employment – Many people got employed.
  • j) Standard of people has improved.

Note: The TVA project has been so successful that many nations of the world go to learn from the project.

Problems of TVA project

  • a) Fluctuation of river volume.
  • b) Problems of capital.
  • c) Problems of silting.
  • d) Problems of waterborne diseases.

 

CASE STUDY 2

Indus – Indus River Basin Development Scheme

In the river, there is a region called Punjab. Punjab means the land of 5 rivers, which are Jhelum, Chunub, Ravi, Bias and Sutley. All these are tributaries of Indus river. Punjab became an agricultural region because of:

– Good fertile soil.

– It is large for plantations.

– River Indus has a lot of water.

– To produce more food.

– To get new areas for settlement.

 

Achievement of the Scheme

  • a) A variety of crops are grown.
  • b) Settlement developed.
  • c) Mills like textile mills and other industries are developed.
  • d) Supply of natural gas increased.
  • e) Increased food production.
  • f) It has earned a world reputation.

Problems of the project

  • a) Water logging.
  • b) Development of salt layers.
  • c) Increase in population.
  • d) Water pollution.
  • e) Frequent conflicts.
  • f) Diseases – Crop and animal diseases.

 

LAND RECLAMATION

Is the process of turning useless land into a useful one.

Purpose of Land Reclamation

– To get land for industrial or residential purposes.

– To increase are for agriculture.

 

Main Techniques Used In Land Reclamation.

  1. Drain water out from marshy areas. E.g. Msasani, Kunduchi.
  2. Irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas. E.g. Along Nile Valley.
  3. Afforestation and reforestation – Trees are planted e.g. HADO – Hifadhi ya Ardhi Dodoma and Shinyanga (HASH) to check serious soil erosion.
  4. Reclaiming land from the sea e.g. Netherlands.
  5. Application of modern methods of farming which improve exhausted land to be useful again.

 

CASE STUDY 1

Land reclamation in Netherlands.

It is in the North European plain. These countries are also known as BENELUX countries. These are low land countries. Holland has a population of about 17 million people and most of them live on reclaimed land.

There is a saying “God made the world but Dutch made Holland”.

 

The Zuider Zee Land Reclamation Scheme

The project started in 1927 with the objective of:-

  • i) Controlling floods.
  • ii) Increase land for settlement.
  • iii) Increase agricultural land.

 

Stages in Zuider Zee Land Reclamation

  1. Building dykes to enclose part of the sea.
  2. Pumping out water by windmills or electricity.
  3. Improvement of soil by desalinization. Plant reeds.
  4. Division of reclaimed land into different uses e.g. agricultural etc.

The land reclaimed from the sea is called POLDER. Zuider Zee project has about 300 polders which is 40% of the reclaimed land in Holland.

 

Outcome of Zuider Zee Project

  • a) Increase in agricultural land – 65000 hectares.
  • b) Land for settlement and industrial uses.
  • c) Floods from the sea were controlled.
  • d) Promoted tourism.
  • e) Stimulated growth of ports e.g. Amsterdam, Rotterdam.
  • f) Improved transportation in shortening distances between places.

 

Problems/Drawbacks

  • a) Huge capital involved/needed.
  • b) Sea water seepage into reclaimed land, therefore desalinization needed regularly.
  • c) Overpopulation.
  • d) Threat of floods if the dykes collapse or because of tsunami.

 

Why the Dutch were so successful in the Zuider Zee project.

  • a) Strong determination of the Dutch to control nature.
  • b) Availability of capital – from government and rich merchants.
  • c) Technology.

 

CASE STUDY 2

Land reclamation of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

– Regions without enough water are sometimes called Marginal Land. E.g. Tanzania, Sudan, Egypt, Somalia.

– These regions have less than 500mm a year.

Land Reclamation can be done by:-

  • a) Irrigation.
  • b) Afforestation and Reforestation.
  • c) Exploitation of underground water.
  • d) Planting drought resistant crops like millet, cassava, grapes, dates e.t.c.e) Construction of reservoirs to harvest rainwater.

 

The Gezira Irrigation Scheme in Sudan

Location: In Sudan between the Blue Nile and White Nile. Gezira means a triangular land between two tributaries of the Nile River. South of Khartoum is where they meet.

Before the project, the area was occupied by semi-nomadism. They kept animals and cultivated drought resistant crops. Property prevailed. The project was proposed in 1904 and implementation started in 1913 by construction of Sennar dam, which was completed in 1925.

 

Objectives of the project

  • a) Construction of the dam to store water after floods.
  • b) To construct barrages to raise the water to the level of canals.
  • c) Expansion of agricultural land through irrigation.

Process of reclaiming the area.

  • a) Construction of Sennar dam.
  • b) Construction of canals across flat plains from South to North.
  • c) Settling the nomadic pastoralists into sedentary life of mixed farming.
  • d) Clearing and cultivating land.
  • e) Extension of the project to areas west of sennar dam.

 

Crops Crown

The main crop is cotton. Others are Sorghum, millet, cassava and groundnuts.

Outcomes of the project

The Gezira scheme is one of the largest successful schemes in Africa.

Outcome

  1. Unproductive area has been converted into productive region.
  2. Semi-nomadic pastoralism has changed to sedentary life.
  3. Life standard of people has improved.
  4. Various projects were possible e.g. H.E.P.
  5. Nile floods were controlled.
  6. Water was available throughout the year.
  7. Variety of crops are grown after the project.
  8. After the success of Gezira, it stimulated construction of other dams on the Nile.

Problems

  1. Outbreak of water borne diseases.
  2. Pests e.g. locust, quelea birds e.t.c.
  3. Salinity.
  4. Variation in volume of Nile due to precipitation in Ethiopia and East Africa.

SOIL EROSION AND SOIL CONSERVATION

What is soil erosion?

It is the erosion of soil by agents of soil erosion.

Causes of Soil Erosion

Natural causes – Wind, rain, moving ice.

Human causes – Deforestation – cutting trees which expose soil.

– Overgrazing

– Shifting cultivation

– Ploughing up and down slope.

– Monoculture

– Cultivation on marginal land – semi-arid areas.

 

Soil Conservation Measures

  1. Afforestation and reforestation.
  2. Destocking – Reduce the number of livestock.
  3. Contour ploughing – across hilling areas.
  4. Terraces on hilly areas.
  5. Stop shifting cultivation – Sedentary farming.
  6. Crop rotation.
  7. Education on modern methods of agriculture.
  8. Strip cultivation – Cover crop/ plant grass.

 

FOREST RESOURCES

Exploitation Of Forest Resources

What is a forest ?

It’s an extensive area of land mostly covered by trees of different sizes, species and other forms of undergrowth.

What is a resource?

It is anything useful that can be utilized if necessary. E.g. water minerals, air, forest or land.

Forests on earth vary according to climatic regions.

  1. Hot Climate – 0-5°N+5 – Equatorial forests

– 5° – 15° – Tropical overgreen forests

  1. Warm Climate – Monsoon, temperate, Deciduous.
  2. Cool Climates – Coniferous forests.

 

Classification of trees

2 categories – i) Hard wood

  1. ii) Soft wood

 

Hard Wood from equatorial and tropical regions.

Characteristics

Broad leaves, tall + evergreen throughout the year.

E.g. Mahogany, rosewood, ebony, greenheart.

They are hard and difficult to exploit.

Note: Monsoon is South East Area and Temperate Forest between 30°-50°N+S°, also produce hardwood like.

These are deciduous forests, which have broad leaves but shed leaves during winter.

 

South Wood

Obtained from cold regions of America and Europe. These are coniferous forests. Are tall, evergreen and have needle like leaves. Are cone shapes to shed snow during winter.

 

Importance of forests to a country.

  1. Provide timber – Construction, ship building, electric poles, and furniture.
  2. Climatic modifier – Attract rainfall, wind breakers, evapotranspiration.
  3. Source of food – Fruits, honey.
  4. Raw materials for industries – Pulp industries, rubber/glue.
  5. Source of fuel.
  6. Home for animals.
  7. Certain medicines.

 

How are forest resources exploited?

There are 2 methods – Controlled harvest

– Uncontrolled harvest

 

  1. Uncontrolled Harvest

Cut down trees mercilessly, no order and leave the land open to agents of soil erosion.

  1. Controlled Harvest

– Government makes laws and policy on forests.

– Government identifies forest reserves. These reserves are protected by law.

– There is a planned exploitation of forest reserves. The forest managers ensure that resources continue to be available for future uses.

 

What are the effects of poor forest management:-

– Deforestation, which leads to soil erosion.

– Global warming.

– Desertification.

– Extinction of certain species.

– Scarcity of forest resources.

– No habitat for organisms.

– No fuel.

 

Impact of Rapid Increase Population of Forest Resources

– Greater demand of forest resources, which leads to overexploitation, which leads to exhaustion.

Gender Role in Forests

  Male Female
1 Collect firewood Collect firewood
2 Hunting Fruits
3 Honey Gum
4 Charcoal extraction Grass
5 Gum Medicine
6 Grass  
7 Medicine  
8 Poles  
9 Lumbering  

In traditional African societies women collect firewood.

 

Effects of collecting firewood to girls/women

  1. Girls do not get equal chance to study as time is wasted.
  2. Health problems.
  3. No time to participate in other activities.
  4. Girls are exposed to risks – snake bites, wild animals.

 

How can we solve gender problems?

  1. Both genders should help each other to collect firewood.
  2. Find alternative source of energy.
  3. Plant trees near homes – Fast growing species.

 

4.MINING INDUSTRY

1. Mining is an economic activity, which involves extracting of minerals from the ground.

  1. Mineral is a naturally obtained inorganic substance with definite chemical composition from the ground. Mineral –Inorganic, occur naturally, Hard (crystal like) solid, Definite chemical formula.

According to this definition – Coal, diamond, oil, petroleum are not minerals.

Geographical definition

Is any economic valuable substance extracted from the ground.

According to this definition – Coal, diamond, oil and petroleum, gases are minerals.

  1. Mine is a place where minerals are obtained.

 

Classification of Minerals – 4 Classes.

  1. Rock Minerals

Are crystalline metamorphic rocks e.g. granite, marble, slate. They are used for construction.

  1. Metallic Minerals

Are very useful for various purposes e.g. iron, gold, silver, zinc, bronze – are valuable minerals.

  1. Non-metallic Minerals

Include salts, sodium chloride are even evaporates.

  1. Mineral Fuel

Fossil fuels.

 

Occurrence of Minerals

There are 4 modes of occurrence. According to geographical conditions under which they were formed.

  1. Veins and Lodes

Minerals resulting from magma. Magma is infected between rocks and solidifies to make minerals. E.g. copper, tin, silver, zinc.

  1. Beds and Seams

Occurs in sedentary rocks e.g. coal, potash, gypsum, iron ore, salt etc.

  1. Alluvial Deposits

Deposited in mud mixture in river lowland e.g. tin, platinum.

  1. Weathering

Is breaking down of rocks in to smaller parts – (laterite soil) leaching of iron compound can accumulate in subsoil e.g. iron ore etc.

 

Methods of mining – 3 methods

  1. Open Cast Method

Is the cheapest method where minerals are near the surface and obtained by removing the top soil e.g. limestone, potash, gypsum.

  1. Shaft Method

Used to obtain minerals deep in the earth. Minerals can even be 1000m underground. A hole has to be deep in earth to reach mineral levels e.g. gold, diamonds, ruby, tanzanite etc.

  1. Placer Mining

Done for alluvial deposits. Mud mixed with minerals are mixed with water until dust is washed away leaving heavy particles. E.g. gold, diamond, tin etc.

 

Distribution Of Minerals In The World

Mineral distribution is uneven. Some countries have a lot of minerals while others don’t.

Mineral Type Coal Iron Ore Copper Diamond Gold
Countries U.S.A Germany Zambia Tanzania Dodoma
  China U.S.A. Uganda Shinyanga Eldoret
  Russia U.K. D.R.C. Kampala Tanzania
  South Africa China U.S.A South Africa Ghana
  D.R.C. Brazil Botswana D.R.C. D.R.C.

 

Factors which influence mineral exploitation

  1. Value of minerals – High value and demand attract investors to exploit while those of low value don’t.
  2. Size of the mineral deposit.
  3. Grade of the ores – High quality minerals attract investors.
  4. Methods of mining – Cheap method to save money – Open cast.

– Shaft method – Expensive.

  1. Transport – Bulky minerals – Copper or iron.
  2. Labour force – Skilled and unskilled.
  3. Government policy – Encourage investors.
  4. Capital – Availability of capital funds.
  5. Stability – Peace and stability.

 

 

5.TOURISM

Tourism involves the movement of people away from home to other places for studies or pleasure.

 

Types of Tourism

– Domestic Tourism

Involves travelling to places within a country e.g. DSM to Mikumi.

– International Tourism

Involves travelling to places outside the country.

 

Reasons of Tourism

  • a) People have accumulated greater wealth.
  • b) Great need of studying.
  • c) Start of long holidays will pay.
  • d) Development of better transport.
  • e) Cheaper transport.
  • f) Development of national parks.
  • g) Increase number of active people.
  • h) Creates awareness of places.

 

Factors which encourage tourism in Tanzania.

  1. Physical factors a) Pleasant climatic conditions. b) Attractive landscape.
  1. Social factors a) Presence of historical sites. b) Presence of national parks. c) Good social services e.g. medication.
  1. Economic factors a) Availability of capital. b) Advancement of transport.

 

  1. Political factors a) Peace in a country. b) Development in tourist industry.

 

Importance of Tourism

  1. Provides employment e.g. gameparks, travelling agencies.
  2. Provides foreign currency.
  3. Improves technology.
  4. Provides enjoyment.
  5. Introduction of new culture.
  6. Strengthening international relations.
  7. Promotes international respect.

 

Positive Effects of Tourism

  1. People get wealth.
  2. Greater need for studying.
  3. Start of long holidays.
  4. Development of transport.
  5. Cheaper transport facilities.
  6. Development of national parks.
  7. Increases number of active people.
  8. Creates awareness of places.

 

Negative Effects of Tourism

  1. Leads to environmental degradation.
  2. Leads to spread of diseases.
  3. Needs high capital.
  4. Makes destruction of culture.
  5. Occurrence of conflicts.

 

Solutions to the problems

  1. New areas should be opened.
  2. Reducing number of visitors.

 

CASE STUDY

Tourism in Tanzania

Tanzania’s tourist industry has a bright future because of:

  1. The government has supported this project.
  2. There are advertising sources.
  3. Wide variety of tourist attraction.
  4. Government stability.
  5. Local people are involved promoting tourism.

 

Tourist attractions in Tanzania (Honeypots)

  1. Attractive landscape.
  2. There are pre-historical sites.
  3. Shifting coastal attractions.
  4. Cool climate in mountains.
  5. Coastal attraction.
  6. Peaceful political atmosphere.
  7. Improvement in transport and communication.

Tourism Policy

It refers to the guidance established by an organ in authority like the government with aim of guiding tourist activities.

Eco-Tourism

It is the technology, which denotes ecological aspect combined with tourist activities.

Importance of Eco-Tourism

  1. Led to empowerment of local community.

 

6.MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Industry covers all forms of human activities.

  • i) Primary
  • ii) Secondary
  • iii) Tertiary
  • iv) Quaternary

Part of secondary industry, involves changing the material into new product of higher value.

Divisions   –   Two parts   –   Light Industry   –   Produce simple and complex goods.

–   Heavy Industry   –   Machine and other heavy products by other industries.

 

History of Manufacturing Industry

Industrial revolution – Great Britain 18th, 19th Century

Today major manufacturing sectors are:- Textile, furniture.

Manufacturing Industry is the most important sector in the world.

Factors Affecting Location of Industries

  1. Raw materials – Where the raw materials are available, industries are located there.
  2. Fuel and power – Coal deposits in England and U.S.A.
  3. Human resources
  4. Markets
  5. Capital
  6. Government policy
  7. Political stability
  8. Climate
  9. Transport and communication
  10. Historical resources

 

Importance of Manufacturing Industry to a Country

  1. It is a source of income.
  2. It is a source of foreign currency.
  3. Source of food/goods.
  4. Means of transport for goods like cars.

 

CASE STUDY

Car Manufacturing in the U.S.A.

General – The U.S.A. is the leading motor car producer in the world. It produces 40% of the total world production. Other big producers are Japan 15%, Germany 12% and France 10%.

Historical Background

Henry Ford built the first car industry in Detroit, North of Lake Erie in U.S.A. Detroit factories spread to other cities in South of the great lakes like Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburg. Then other cities like Los Angeles, California on the Western side of America.

Manufacturing Process

Different factories manufacture different goods. These are brought to the car assembly factory, which has a long belt of over 1 km where the frame passes a workman in line on each side of belt to fix required components. A complete car comes out at the end of the belt. In U.S.A., there is production of a car every minute.

Market

There is a big internal market for the production. Major external markets are Canada, South America and Central America, Asia, Australia and Africa.

 

Factors Which Favoured Car Production in U.S.A.

  1. Raw materials
  2. Power
  3. Capital
  4. Human resources
  5. Market
  6. Efficient transport system
  7. Political stability

 

Problems Associated With Car Manufacturing In U.S.A.

  1. Pollution – Air
  2. Global warming resulting from industrial gases.
  3. Land degradation
  4. Health hazards
  5. Competition in the world market
  6. Terrorism.

 

Solutions To The Problems

  1. Management of waste products to reduce pollution.
  2. New industries to be built away from populated areas.
  3. Strict laws for green house gases producing companies.
  4. Increase quality of goods to get markets.
  5. Advertisement.

 

 

7.TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

Transport and communication is very essential for development in the modern world.

Transport is movement of organisms and goods from one place to another.

Means of transport:- Land, water and air.

 

Land Transporte.g. Road, railways, human transport, animal, pipelines (oil and water).

Air Transporte.g. Sky, planes, helicopter

Water Transporte.g. Ship and boat, sea, ocean, lake, river.

 

Importance of Transport

  1. Movement of organisms.
  2. Goods are transported to where they are needed.
  3. Spread of technology to different places.
  4. Facilitates trade to take place.

 

Road Transport

Is the most common means of transport in the world making use of vehicles e.g. bicycles, cars, motorbikes. This means of transport is very well developed in advanced countries but low development in less developed countries.

 

Advantages Of Road Transport

  1. Faster than human transport.
  2. Flexible because it can be constructed anywhere.
  3. Are cheaper constructed and maintained.
  4. Do not need special timetable like planes and rail.
  5. It is easy in delivering perishable goods e.g. milk.

 

Disadvantages

  1. Affected by weather conditions.
  2. Limited to certain types of goods.
  3. Accidents.

 

COMMUNICATION

Communication is transfer and exchange of information between the sender and the receiver.

Means of Communication

  • a) Oral communication – Phones.
  • b) Written communication – Newspapers.
  • c) Visual communication – TV, video films.

 

MAP WORK

Contours and Landforms

  1. A conical hill (Volcano)
  1. A river valley

Where a contour crosses a river it forms a V-shape which points to a higher land.

  1. A spur

Highland projecting into lowland contours making V-shape which points into lowland.

  1. Promontory

A piece of land projecting into the sea. Contours make a V-shape pointing.

  1. Plateaus

Close contours on the sides and space or the contours on the top to show flat surface.

  1. Cat and Saddle

A passage between hills. A cat is smaller and a saddle is large.

  1. Ridge

A narrow landform with steep sides. Contours run more or less parallel with closeness on the sides to show steepness.

  1. Slopes a) Even slope – Contours are evenly spaced. b) Convex slope – Contours sparse on highest land and close on the lower point.    c) Concave slope

 

 

GRID REFERENCE

Grid Lines

Vertical – Eastings

Horizontal – Northings

Grid lines are numbered from the origin.

Origin is the point on the South West corner of the map.

Where the 1st easting and northing meet.

 

8.EXPLOITATION OF POWER RESOURCES

Uses of Energy

  1. To drive machines.
  2. Cooling, heating, lighting.
  3. In plants + animals in metabolism.

Types of Energy Resources

Two types – (i) Renewable – If once used, can be replaced.

— (ii) Non- renewable – If once used, cannot be replaced.

 

Non-renewable

COAL

The most important fuel in the world.

 

Major World Producers

U.S.A., China, Russia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Germany.

 

Importance of Coal

  1. Employment
  2. Source of power
  3. Source of Income
  4. Raw material
  5. Stimulates growth of trees.

 

Disadvantages of Coal

  1. Environmental pollution
  2. Environmental degradation
  3. Gets exhausted

 

OIL (Petroleum)

It is the leading and greatest resource in demand in the modern industrial world.

Origin: Decayed organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

Major World Producers

U.S.A., Canada, Russia, South Africa, Middle East.

Disadvantages

  1. Non-renewable
  2. Pollution
  3. Dangerous –fire

Natural Gas – Mostly associated with petroleum.